Until very recently, most geologists were conditioned to seek the effects of three major events–the Taconian, the Acadian, and the Alleghanian–within the Appalachian orogen. Things are not that simple, however, as the importance of older deformations is increasingly being recognized. Although this chapter is concerned primarily with the Taconic orogen (sensu stricto), two older deformational events are considered herein. These events are the Blountian and Penobscottian orogenies. The Penobscottian event has been recognized for some time (Neuman, 1967; Hall, 1969, 1970), but its importance in Appalachian geology has only recently become apparent by work in northern Maine (Osberg, 1983; Boone and others, 1984) and the Potomac Valley of Virginia and Maryland (Drake and Lyttle, 1981; Drake, 1987). In Maine, the Penobscottian can only be dated as pre-late Ibexian (pre-Arenigian), whereas in the Potomac Valley it is thought to be of late Middle Cambrian to early Late Cambrian (Dresbachian) age. Neither syn- nor post-orogenic sediments are recognized that could have resulted from the Penobscottian deformation. On the contrary, the Blountian event is recognized because of its syn-and post-orogenic sediment wedge, but deformational features related to the event have not as yet been recognized in the Blountian hinterland, although isotopic dating within the Blue Ridge is permissive of deformation at this time. The Blountian orogeny has been recognized for many years (Kay, 1942), and Rodgers (1953) has termed it the Blountian phase of the Taconicorogeny. In my opinion, it was a separate tectonic event that was completed prior to the Taconic (sensu stricto), as its uppermost molasse is overlain by distal Taconian syn- and post-orogenic deposits. It goes without saying that the effects of the Penobscottian and Blountian orogenies are difficult to recognize and separate from those of the Taconic orogeny. For this reason, the effects of the earlier events will be discussed with those of the Taconic where they are believed to be present.